Disassembling second -hand e -commerce： Where is it difficult and how to break the situation
Wen Liu Yuanluo
In recent years, with the conversion of consumer wind directions, domestic second -hand e -commerce transactions have begun to expand.Recently, as many second -hand e -commerce companies disclosed their latest financial reports, it can be seen from the significant growth of revenue that second -hand e -commerce has gradually become a new battlefield for e -commerce.
According to previous institutional statistics, the number of second -hand e -commerce users in 2022 was 263 million, an increase of 17.93%year -on -year. Gen Z people have become the core target group of China's second -hand idle transactions.The expansion of the transaction population has driven the scale of second -hand e -commerce transactions to 480.204 billion yuan, an increase of 20%year -on -year.At the same time, unlike new mobile phones and other standard products, second -hand items have derived a lot of new problems. Moreover, once there are disputes, the types are complicated and diverse, and it is difficult to judge for a while.
The development of second -hand e -commerce has also reached a key node.
Non -standard transaction
Disputes of second -hand items are mainly due to two reasons, one is the cost of transaction, and the second is non -standard (non -standardized).
First in the new product trading link.New product transactions only need to be a brand new unpacking.However, second -hand items are much more troublesome. Sellers or sales platforms need to take photos and videos, and repeatedly communicate with buyers in order to be sold.After that, there are costs such as packets, sending, and logistics costs.
Secondly, second -hand items are non -standard, and each product is different.There is no standard for definition of color; there is no authority to describe items: whether it is scratched in itself, or the buyer is falsely reported scratches, and even deliberately scratched scratches, it is difficult to distinguish.Therefore, trading of second -hand items is easy to controversy.
Another problem is that for people or businesses who recycle second -hand items, the transaction costs such as appraisal are also very high. For example, a 2000 yuan computer, merchants need to detect whether the hard disk is bad.These take time.Therefore, the transaction cost of second -hand items is high.This cost will be reflected in the price, and the seller will feel uncomfortable.
Another example is the phenomenon of "hand knives" on the platform. Except for the fake description of the items of the seller, most of the other situations use the above two factors.After receiving the goods, the buyer forced the seller to reduce the price: Since the things are not the standard, the buyer can raise objections after getting the hand; since the selling is troublesome, the seller is unwilling to come again, then, pick up a problem after the hand and press the price again.The seller finally sold it, and he would often accept it.
In fact, from ancient times to the present, the transactions of second -hand items are so.In ancient times, it was sold to the pawnshop. The shopkeeper at the pawnshop at a glance at a low price, and he loved to sell it. The seller only bought it for money for money.After the market is developing, there are small businesses specializing in second -hand receiving, and they are also accompanied by the market. Looking at people and picking food, picking a bunch of problems, it can be low and low.This is a motivation for any transaction. Buyers want low prices and sellers want to cost high -just like aunt to buy vegetables, but also say that there are insect eyes on the leaves.
Many problems that solve second -hand transactions need to be an intermediary with enough goodwill.Because of sufficient goodwill, the behavior model can be longer and will take the initiative to avoid short -term behavior.The subtlety of the market is that it will spontaneously produce new technologies and new models to complete transactions.As the scale of the second -hand economy becomes larger and larger, the new market model has indeed appeared. For example, the latest development of the official quality inspection machine system of the second -hand industry has been launched. Some platform companies have been a transaction platform and providing protection are becoming a general trend.But at the same time, these new models still face challenges of natural attributes of second -hand transactions.
First of all, although the technology has improved and the business model is more fine, the commercial company does not do Lei Feng, but also to make money, and it will inevitably be priced.To a certain extent, it is equivalent to the formalization and commercialization of ordinary people's "swords".
The gap between a person's personal valuation and the actual payment of a product is the surplus of the transaction.To put it simply, it is the degree of cost in the transaction.For example, if you agree to sell it to the pawnshop, it is painful, but the price is lower, and you may still have to be sold.Compared to the price that is unwilling to sell, the higher part is the surplus of the transaction.Compared with the company's transactions, it is more guaranteed on the one hand, and there are more surplus trading on the one hand, but the pain is more likely.
In the past form, although there was pain, there was no place to complain about the selling party.Because he is facing ordinary people, or some very small couple shops, individual households.The status is equal, and the price is low. The bystanders will say that you will not sell it.But when an ordinary person faces a commercial company, with the special Internet attributes, the general public will naturally feel that the company will fraud with ordinary people.Therefore, complaining in public opinion is very effective, forming the risk of these commercial companies.
For example, for a while, the second -hand platform "Ai Feng School" authorized by Apple was exposed by the media to 50 % off the price of Apple's official website.It was priced at 0 yuan.The 0 yuan "Bai Yan" is indeed exaggerated. Regardless of the reason for the recycler, consumers and the public are easy to dislike when watching such news.
Second, in order to expand the scale of transaction, non -standardization must be eliminated. Then, standardization and standardization must be made, and a set of accurate standards must be formulated to evaluate the color of the items and then priced.However, the standards are fine and some problems will be encountered.
Third, in addition to functional items, mobile phone testing is many manual components.Like sports competitions, all people who do referees must have subjective and errors, and different people's judgments will be different; and the finer the standard, the greater the error.For example, if it is defined as new, old, and garbage, there are generally no errors.Therefore, when many people sell second -hand items, they will set a garbage to avoid disputes.However, if it is defined as 90%, 80%, and 70%, it is divided by 10%. Different human inspections will have different results.
Some time ago, I encountered the so -called "Yin and Yang Report" incident. To some extent, it was because the standard of turning was very fine. The length of the scratch was set to 0.1mm.People will give different test results, causing sellers to believe that they are "hand -to -feet" in the quality inspection report, causing a difference between the front and rear.Imagine that if the standard is only three levels (none, moderate, heavy), it will be much easier to distinguish.Therefore, the so -called "yin and yang report" has certain gimmick components, and the price difference is more about the business model of low buying and high -selling in the recycling industry.
However, in order to improve the standardization, it is necessary to do so, which will cause the seller to believe that the clerk deliberately suppresses the price.In fact, in general, in order to avoid the short -term behavior of employees, companies operating second -hand items will be isolated from the price to benefit.
Signs of supervision
In fact, no matter how complicated the market conditions, what is eventually protecting the interests of the seller is competition.Among the same second -hand computer, some of the acquirers have been pressed to 1,000 yuan, but some people will receive it for 1200 yuan. Those who sell them will choose more and see more to protect their own interests better.But this requires personal spending more time.This is the cost of inquiry in the market, but many people don't want to pay this cost, they call for severe supervision.
However, for the government, supervision also costs costs, and the quality of new products is easy, but the supervision of second -hand items is different. It is impossible to send people to check for each problem.
The circulation of second -hand products is good for the economy and environmental protection. The road to industry standardization should continue to advance, not because of the waste of food and returning to the past.There are such problems as after the emergence of online car rental, but no one wants to return to the era of only taxis.
Some time ago, the rules of food supervision of cucumbers were greatly simplified. Of course, this is a good thing, but cold dishes are more likely to cause food poisoning and relaxation of supervision, and it will inevitably make more diarrhea incidents.Anything must be weighing between security and freedom, between market defects and market prosperity.There is no perfect supervision to eliminate all the disadvantages, so that the entire market is gone.
Believe in the evolution of the market itself, so let the bullets fly for a while and rely on the evolution of the market itself to make the industry more perfect.